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September 27, 2007

Lesson Plans- Citations/References (EAP)

Hello Readers,

Teaching students how to cite their sources for a research paper can be a daunting task. Many teachers are tempted with the idea of simply giving the students a self-study for the students to work on in their own time. However, with some guided practice, you can ensure that your students will be confident...

...citation users.

Here's a simple lesson plan to teach your EAP students about citing their sources.

First, it would be useful to find out which reference system the school or department prefers. My university uses the Harvard Referencing System. A copy of such a guide can be found at: http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htmguide.

1. Why do we need to cite our sources?

Students discuss this question in small groups and then report their findings to the class. It's important for students to understand that plagiarism is a serious academic offense and that by citing their sources, they are not only showing their lecturers that they have engaged in some research, but they are also able to build better arguments in their essays by using information from other sources. This idea may be somewhat foreign to some students.

2. The three most commonly used sources include books, journal articles and internet sources. What information do you need for each?

a. Books:
b. Journal Articles:
c. Internet Sources:

Students should discuss with partners. They should not refer to the guide at this point yet. Report back to class. Teacher then can show students a sample reference for each of the above three source types. Use resources that the students are using in the class if possible.

Suggested answers:
a. Books: Author(s)/Editor(s), Year of Publication, Title, Edition, Series, Place of Publication and Publisher, Page Numbers
b. Journal Articles: Author(s), Year of Publication, Title of article, Title of Journal, Volume Number, Issue Number and/or Date, Page Numbers
c. Internet Sources: Same as printed sources (if provided) plus url and the date on which you retrieved it

3. Teacher should then distribute a copy of a reference guide, along with a worksheet (like the one below) with references. (These are taken from previous students' essays- it might be useful to collect such work with your own students for future use).

Below is a list of references. Write either I (for Incorrect) or C (for correct) to the left of each reference. If you find something wrong with the reference, correct it as best you can.

Eickelman, C. (n.d.). The International Education Site: Studying Abroad and Culture Shock. [Online]. Retrieved on 28 August 2007 from: http://www.intstudy.com/articles/ec184a13.htm

BBC News (2007). How to Get the Best Out of a University Library. Retrieved on 16th May 2003 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A1033859

Storti, C. (2001). The Art of Crossing Cultures. 2nd Edition. London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.

BBC News (2007). Resources on the internet. Retrieved on 10th March, 2007 from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A956261.

Students work on correcting the references in small groups. Then, teacher goes over the answers with the students.

Suggested answers for the following include:

Eickelman, C. (n.d.). The International Education Site: Studying Abroad and Culture Shock. [Online]. Retrieved on 28 August 2007 from: http://www.intstudy.com/articles/ec184a13.htm C-4

BBC News (2007a). How to Get the Best Out of a University Library. [Online]. Retrieved on 16 May 2003 from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A1033859 I-1

Storti, C. (2001). The Art of Crossing Cultures. 2nd ed. London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing. I-10

BBC News (2007b). Resources on the Internet. [Online]. Retrieved on 10 March 2007 from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A956261 I-2

4. Have students put the references in alphabetical order.
BBC News (2007a).
BBC News (2007b)
Eickelman, C. (n.d.).
Storti, C. (2001).

5. Give students a short article. In small groups, students should write a paragraph describing some of the key points. In this paragraph, students should practice citing the sources within the text. Teacher should monitor activity and provide feedback.

6. HW: Students find three sources (1 book, 1 journal article and 1 internet source) for their research report. Create references list and 1 in-text citation for each source.

7. Correct the paragraphs and hang them up for students to view in the upcoming weeks for review.

Hope that helps!

Carol Rueckert
Writer, ESL Lesson Plan
E-mail: crueckert@eslemployment.com
Blog: www.esl-lesson-plan.com

"I hear, and I forget. I see, and I remember. I do, and I understand." - Chinese Proverb

Looking for more articles about lesson planning for the ESL classroom? Click HERE!

About the author of this entry:
Carol, a native English-speaker who hails from the small town of St. Joseph in Minnesota, USA, worked in China for more than 7 years. During that time, she worked with students of all ages and levels. She worked at universities, private language schools, grade schools, international schools, and did private tutoring as well. Besides teaching, she also worked as a head teacher, an education manager, and a material development manager. In addition to working on this newsletter, she also writes a monthly column for Time Out Beijing. Carol is also currently working on her MA in TESOL at Oxford Brookes University in England. Look for her posts on the ESL-Jobs-Forum discussion boards!

Posted by crueckert at September 27, 2007 03:49 AM

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